Writing

Text Types and Purposes:

  • Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.
    • Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer's purpose.
    • Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details.
    • Link opinion and reasons using words and phrases (e.g., for instance, in order to, in addition).
    • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.
  • Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. (trimester 1 Oct-Jan)
    • Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
    • Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.
    • Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g., another, for example, also, because).
    • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
    • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.
  • Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences. (Trimester 1)
    • Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
    • Use dialogue and description to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations.
    • Use a variety of transitional words and phrases to manage the sequence of events.
    • Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.
    • Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.

Production and Distribution of Writing:

  • Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Trimester 1)
  • With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing. (Trimester 1)
  • With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of one page in a single sitting. (Trimester 1)

Research to Build and Present Knowledge:

  • Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic. (Trimester 1 Oct-Jan)
  • Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources. (Trimester 1 Oct-Jan)
    • Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
    • Apply grade 4 Reading standards to literature (e.g., "Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., a character's thoughts, words, or actions].").
    • Apply grade 4 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., "Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text").

Range of Writing:

  • Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) (Trimester 1)
  • Write for shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Speaking and Listening

Comprehension and Collaboration:

  • Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.
    • Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
    • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
    • Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of others.
    • Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.
    • Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
    • Identify the reasons and evidence a speaker provides to support particular points.

Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas:

  • Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.
    • Add audio recordings and visual displays to presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.
    • Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion); use formal English when appropriate to task and situation. (See grade 4 Language standards 1 here for specific expectations.)

Language

Conventions of Standard English:

  • Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (Trimester 1)
    • Use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs (where, when, why).
    • Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb tenses.
    • Use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to convey various conditions.
    • Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag).
    • Form and use prepositional phrases.
    • Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.*
    • Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to, too, two; there, their).*
    • Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
    • Use correct capitalization.
    • Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text.
    • Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence.
    • Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.

Knowledge of Language:

  • Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. (Trimester 1)
    • Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely.*
    • Choose punctuation for effect.*
    • Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion).

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use:

  • Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. (Trimester 1)
    • Use context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
    • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, autograph).
    • Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.
  • Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. (Trimester 1 Oct-Jan)
    • Explain the meaning of simple similes and metaphors (e.g., as pretty as a picture) in context.
    • Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.
    • Demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites (antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms).
  • Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation). (Trimester 1 Oct-Jan)