• Historical Thinking and Skills - begins with a clear sense of time – past, present and future – and becomes more precise as students progress. Historical thinking includes skills such as locating, researching, analyzing and interpreting primary and secondary sources so that students can begin to understand the relationships among events and draw conclusions.
    • The Order of significant events in Ohio and the United States can be shown on a timeline.
    • Primary and secondary sources can be used to create historical narratives
  • Heritage - Ideas and events from the past have shaped the world as it is today. The actions of individuals and groups have made a difference in the lives of others.
    • Ideas and events from the past have shaped the works as it is today. The actions of individuals and groups have made a difference int he lives of others.
    • 13 colonies came together around a common cause of liberty and justice, uniting to fight for independence during the American Revolution and to form a new nation.
    • The Northwest Ordinance established a process for the creation of new states and specified democratic ideals to be incorporated in the states of the Northwest Territory.
    • The inability to resolve standing issues with Great Britain and ongoing conflicts with American Indians led the United State into the War of 1812. Victory int he Battle of Lake Erie contributed to American success in the war.
    • Sectional issues divided the United States after the War of 1812. Ohio played a key role int these issues, particularly with the anti-slavery movement and the Underground Railroad.
    • Many technological innovations that originated in Ohio benefited the United States


  • Spatial Thinking and Skills - examines the relationships among people, places and environments by mapping and graphing geographic data. Geographic data are compiled, organized, stored and made visible using traditional and geospatial technologies. Students need to be able to access, read, interpret and create maps and other geographic representations as tools of analysis.
    • A map scale and cardinal and intermediate direction can be used to describe the relative location of physical and human characteristics of Ohio and the United States.
  • Places and Regions - a location having distinctive characteristics, which give it meaning and character and distinguish it from other locations. A region is an area with one or more common characteristics, which give it a measure of homogeneity and make it different from surrounding areas. Regions and places are human constructs.
    • The economic development of the United States continues to influence and be influenced by agriculture, industry, and natural resources in Ohio
    • The regions which became known as the North, South, and West of the United States developed in the early 1800s, largely based on their physical environments and economies.
  • Human systems - represent the settlement and structures created by people on Earth’s surface. The growth, distribution and movements of people are driving forces behind human and physical events. Geographers study patterns in cultures and the changes that result from human processes, migrations and the diffusion of new cultural traits.
    • People have modified the environment since prehistoric times. There are both positive and negative consequences for modifying the environment in Ohio and the United States.
    • The population of the United States has changed over time, becoming more diverse (e.g., racial, ethnic, linguistic, religious). Ohio’s population has become increasingly reflective of the cultural diversity of the United States
    • Ohio’s location in the United States and its transportation systems continue to influence the movement of people, products and ideas.


  • Civic participation and skills - embraces the ideal that an individual actively engages in his or her community, state or nation for the common good. Students need to practice effective communication skills including negotiation, compromise and collaboration. Skills in accessing and analyzing information are essential for citizens in a democracy.
    • Individuals have a variety of opportunities to participate in and influence their state and national government. Citizens have both rights and responsibilities in Ohio and the United States
    • Civic participation requires individuals to make informed and reasoned decisions by accessing and using information effectively.
    • Effective participation in a democratic society engage in compromise
  • Rules and Laws - Rules play an important role in guiding behavior and establishing order in families, classrooms and organizations. Laws are enacted by governments to perform similar functions.
    • Laws can protect rights, provide benefits and assign responsibilities
    • The U.S. Constitution establishes a system of limited government and protects citizens' rights; five of these rights are addressed in the First Amendment
  • Roles and Systems of Government- The purpose of government in the United States is to establish order, protect the rights of individuals and promote the common good. Governments may be organized in different ways and have limited or unlimited powers.
    • A Constitution is a written plan for government. Democratic constitutions provide the framework for government in Ohio and the United States
    • The Ohio Constitution and the U.S. Constitution separate the major responsibilities of government among three branches


  • Economic Decision Making and Skills - Effective economic decision making requires students to be able to reason logically about key economic issues that affect their lives as consumers, producers, savers, investors and citizens. Economic decision making and skills engage students in the practice of analyzing costs and benefits, collecting and organizing economic evidence, and proposing alternatives to economic problems.
    • Tables and charts help people to understand information and issues. Tables organize information in columns and rows. Charts organize information in a variety of visual formats (pictures, diagrams, graphs)
  • Production and Consumption - the act of combining natural resources, human resources, capital goods and entrepreneurship to make goods and services. Consumption is the use of goods and services.
    • Entrepreneurs in Ohio and the United States organize productive resources and take risks to make a profit and compete with other producers.

  • Financial Literacy - the ability of individuals to use knowledge and skills to manage limited financial resources effectively for lifetime financial security.
    • Saving a portion of income contributes to an individual’s financial well-being. Individuals can reduce spending to save more of their income.